Rabu, 09 Desember 2009

Corruption Perception Rank by Transparancy International

Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) ordering the countries of the world according to "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians"The organization defines corruption as "the abuse of entrusted power for private gain".
The 2003 poll covered 133 countries; the 2007 survey, 180. A higher score means less (perceived) corruption. The results show seven out of every ten countries (and nine out of every ten developing countries) with an index of less than 5 points out of 10.
The Corruption Perceptions Index has drawn increasing criticism in the decade since its launch, leading to calls for the index to be abandoned. This criticism has been directed at the quality of the Index itself, and the lack of actionable insights created from a simple country ranking Because corruption is willfully hidden, it is impossible to measure directly; instead proxies for corruption are used. The CPI uses an eclectic mix of third-party surveys to sample public perceptions of corruption through a variety of questions, ranging from "Do you trust the government?" to "Is corruption a big problem in your country?"
The use of third-party survey data is a source of criticism. The data can vary widely in methodology and completeness from country to country. The methodology of the Index itself changes from year to year, thus making even basic better-or-worse comparisons difficult. Media outlets, meanwhile, frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean.
The lack of standardization and precision in these surveys is cause for concern. The authors of the CPI argue that averaging enough survey data will solve this; others argue that aggregating imprecise data only masks these flaws without addressing them In one case, a local Transparency International chapter disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused a country's scores to increase—media reported it as an "improvement" Other critics point out that definitional problems with the term "corruption" makes the tool problematic for social science.
Aside from precision issues, a more fundamental critique is aimed at the uses of the Index. Critics are quick to concede that the CPI has been instrumental in creating awareness and stimulating debate about corruption. However, as a source of quantitative data in a field hungry for international datasets, the CPI can take on a life of its own, appearing in cross-country and year-to-year comparisons that the CPI authors themselves admit are not justified by their methodology. The authors state in 2008: "Year-to-year changes in a country's score can either result from a changed perception of a country's performance or from a change in the CPI’s sample and methodology. The only reliable way to compare a country’s score over time is to go back to individual survey sources, each of which can reflect a change in assessment."
The CPI produces a single score per country, which as noted above, cannot be compared year-to-year. As such, the Index is nearly useless as a tool for evaluating the impact of new policies In the late 2000s, the field has moved towards unpackable, action-oriented indices (such as those by the International Budget Partnership or Global Integrity), which typically measure public policies that relate to corruption, rather than try to assess "corruption" as a whole via proxy measures like perceptions.These alternative measures use original (often locally collected) data and are limited in scope to specific policy practices (such as public access to parliamentary budget documents)

Corruption Perceptions ranking of countries
published by Transparency International
Rank Country                                                    Index 2009   
                                2009        2008        2007        2006        2005        2004        2003        2002                       
1 New Zealand       9.4           9.3           9.4           9.6           9.6           9.5           9.5           9.4
2 Denmark               9.3           9.3           9.4           9.5           9.5           9.5           9.5           9.5
3 Singapore             9.2           9.2           9.3           9.2           9.3           9.4           9.4           9.4
3 Sweden               9.2           9.3           9.3           9.2           9.2           9.3           9.3           9.0
5 Switzerland          9.0           9.0           9.0           9.1           9.1           8.8           8.5           8.4
6 Finland                 8.9           9.0           9.4           9.6           9.6           9.7           9.7           9.9
6 Netherlands          8.9           8.9           9.0           8.7           8.6           8.9           9.0           8.8
8 Australia               8.7           8.7           8.6           8.7           8.8           8.8           8.6           8.5
8 Canada                 8.7           8.7           8.7           8.5           8.4           8.7           9.0           8.9
8 Iceland                 8.7           8.9           9.2           9.6           9.7           9.6           9.4           9.2
11 Norway              8.6           7.9           8.7           8.8           8.9           8.8           8.5           8.6
12 Hong Kong         8.2           8.1           8.3           8.3           8.3           8.0           8.2           7.9
12 Luxembourg       8.2           8.3           8.4           8.6           8.5           8.7           9.0           8.7
14 Germany            8.0           7.9           7.8           8.0           8.2           7.7           7.3           7.4
14 Ireland                8.0           7.7           7.5           7.4           7.4           7.5           6.9           7.5
16 Austria               7.9           8.1           8.1           8.6           8.7           8.0           7.8           7.8
17 Japan                 7.7           7.3           7.5           7.6           7.3           7.0           7.1           7.1
17 UK                      7.7           7.7           8.4           8.6           8.6           8.6           8.7           8.3
19 United States      7.5           7.3           7.2           7.3           7.6           7.5           7.7           7.6
20  Barbados          7.4           7.0           6.9           6.7           6.9                                            
106 Niger                 2.9           2.8           2.6           2.3           2.4           2.2                            
111 Algeria              2.8           3.2           3.0           3.1           2.8           2.7           2.6            
111 Djibouti              2.8           3.0           2.9                                                                            
111 Egypt                2.8           2.8           2.9           3.3           3.4           3.2           3.3           3.4
111 Indonesia          2.8           2.6           2.3           2.4           2.2           2.0           1.9           1.9
111 Kiribati              2.8           3.1           3.3           3.7

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